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The Great Bath of IVC

Indus Valley Civilization

Most important features of Indus Valley Civilization

Key features of Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization

A Bronze Age Civilization that flourished between 2500-1750 BC in the north western parts of India and present-day Pakistan.

Also called the ‘Harappan Civilization’ after the name of its first discovered site.

Geographical Extent

Town Planning

Most unique feature - Divided into two sections:

Citadel – Smaller but built on higher platform.

Lower Town – Much larger but lower.

Economic life

Main crops - Wheat and barley 

Animals were domesticated However, The use of horse is not firmly established.

People of this civilization did not know about Iron.

Internal trade was extensive - Based on barter system.

Foreign trade was mainly conducted with Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, Iran and Oman.

Art and Crafts

Figure of a dancing girl from Mohenjodaro made of bronze.

Experts in bead-making.

Pottery - Plain/ Red and black painted .

Seals with engravings.

Pashupati Seal from Mohenjo Daro. 


Pictographic, still not fully deciphered.

Boustrophedon method ( written from right to left in first line and from left to right in second line ) adopted.

Social Life

Used sewn clothing - Figure of a bearded man found in Mohenjo-Daro.

Use of Beads, ornaments and cosmetics was common.

Complete burial and post-cremation burial common.

Lothal and  Harappa - Evidence of coffins burial.

Political Authority
  • No evidence of any ruler or any governing system
  • No evidence of warfare.
Important Sites and findings


  • Row of six granaries
  • Evidences of coffin burial.


  • The Great Bath
  • bronze dancing girl
  • Steatite statue of bearded priest


  • City without Citadel
  • Bead makers shop

Kalibangan (Black Bangles)

  • Fire-Altars
  • Ploughed field


  • City with 3 divisions
  • Unique water management system
  • Several large reservoirs


  • Artificial dockyard
  • Remains of rice husk


  • Remains of rice husk


  • Evidence of remains of the horse bones.


  • Largest Indus Valley site in India
Decline of Indus Valley Civilization

Various theories have been given. Some of them are :

Combination of natural factors like,

  1. Recurring floods
  2. Drying up of rivers
  3. Dramatic shifts in the river courses
  4. Changes in patterns of rainfall
  5. Decreasing fertility of the soil due to excessive exploitation and occasional earthquakes

Aryan invasion

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