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United Nations and its Organs

United Nations and its Organs short notes for UPSC Prelims, State PSCs Prelims and Other Examinations.

United Nations:

  • Founded in 1945 after World War II.
  • Predecessor organization –  League of Nations (created by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, disbanded in 1946 )
  • Mission – To maintain international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress and protecting human rights.
  • Headquarter – New York
  • Official Languages – There are six official languages of the UN. They are :
    • Arabic
    • Chinese
    • English
    • French
    • Spanish
    • Russian
  • Members – 193  Members

Organs of the United Nations:

There are six main organs of the United nations. 

UN General Assembly:

  • Deliberative organ of UN
  • Composed of all member states of UN
  • Voting – Each member has one vote
  • Headquarters – New York, United States
  • Important Functions:
    • Appoints Secretary General of UN
    • Elects Judges to International Court of Justice (ICJ)
  • India is a member.

United Nations Security Council

  • Mandate – To maintain international peace and security
  • Headquarters – New York, United States
  • Members(15):
    • Permanent members(5)
      • United States
      • UK
      • France
      • China
      • Russia
    • Non permanent members(10) – Elected by the General Assembly for 2-year terms
  • Has power to give binding decisions on member states.
  • Voting – Each member has one vote. Permanent Member States have ‘Veto Power’(If any one of the five permanent members give a negative vote, resolution in consideration can not be approved).
  • India is not a permanent member.
  • G4 Nations:
    • 4 countries who bid for permanent seats in UNSC.
      • Brazil
      • Germany
      • India
      • Japan
  • Uniting for Consensus:
    • Also known as Coffee Club
    • Group of countries who are opposing the expansion of permanent members in the UNSC

UN Economic & Social Council

  • Coordinates among the member nations and other organizations on working towards social and economic issues.
  • Headquarters – New York, United States
  • Members – It has 54 members
  • India is a member

UN Secretariat

  • Performs regular day to day work of the UN and also administers the programs and policies of the UN.
  • Headed by the Secretary-General
  • Location – New York, USA

International Court of Justice

  • Judicial organ of the United Nations
  • Location – Hague, Netherlands
  • Mandate – To settle legal disputes between states and give advisory opinions to the UN and its specialized agencies
  • Also hears cases related to war crimes, ethnic cleansing etc.
  • Judges – 15 judges elected for a 9 year term
  • The Court hears the disputes between nations only and not between individuals, organizations and private entities and its judgment is final and binding.

The Trusteeship Council

  • It was created to provide for the supervision and administration of Trust territories that had been placed under the administration of the UN.
  • By 1994, all Trust Territories attained independence and self-government hence currently there is no function to be performed by the Trusteeship Council.

Also Read in International Organizations Short Notes :