Modern History Short Notes – Socio-Religious Reform Movements notes for UPSC Prelims, State Services and other examinations.
Arrival of Europeans
Arrival of Europeans notes/study material for preparation of UPSC, BPSC, UPPSC other State PSC and other Examinations.
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From 7th century onwards, India’s merchandise trade with European countries was dominated by Arabs who did not allow any other to encroach these routes. Due to the highly profitable nature of trade and huge demand of Indian spices and merchandise in Europe, European countries envied Arabs and wanted to find an alternative direct route to India. To find the alternative route, European sailors started taking long voyages
Arrival of Portuguese :
It was the Portuguese who succeeded and discovered alternative sea routes to India. Portuguese traveler Vasco da Gama discovered an alternate route from Portugal to India via Cape of Good Hope. He first reached India in May 1498 in Calicut. He was received by Zamorin who was the ruler of Kozhikode.
Portuguese were also the first Europeans to settle and colonize India. They came to India mainly to trade in spices but gradually made their colonies here.In 1503, Francisco de Almeida was sent as Governor and Viceroy of ‘Estado da India’( Name the Portuguese gave to that part of their empire in India).
In 1510, He was replaced by Alfonso de Albuquerque. Below are the worth noting points about Albuquerque:
- Albuquerque invaded Goa in 1510 and fought the Battle of Goa (1510) with the forces of Sultan of Bijapur Adil Shah and established a Portuguese colony in Goa.
- He started the first Portuguese mint and issued coins in Gold, Silver and Bronze.
- He encouraged Portuguese to have marriage alliances with Indian women.
- He was first to abolish the practice of Sati, which was in vogue in that time, in the Portuguese colonies in Goa.
- He maintained friendly relations with the rulers of Vijayanagar Empire.
Due to the above reasons, Albuquerque is known as the real founder of the Portuguese colonial empire in India
Decline of Portuguese empire in India:
The Portuguese empire in India could not last long and soon the Portuguese had abandoned India in favor of the other European powers. Following are the worth noting points about the decline of Portuguese empire in India :
- After Albuquerque, there came no Portuguese governor with strong will and ambition to expand the Portuguese empire.
- In 1612, the Portuguese lost Surat to the British.
- In 1631, Mughals recaptured Hugli from them.
- Because of the strategic location of Bombay as a port, all European powers wanted to establish their hegemony on it. However, In 1661, the Portuguese gave Bombay in dowry to Prince Charles-II of England.
- Their spirit of converting all their subjects to Christianity, even forcefully, was not liked by local masses and rulers.
Due to the above reasons, By the 19th century, Portuguese became confined to only Goa, Daman and Diu.
Arrival of French :
Among the major European powers, The French East India Company was the last to be formed. Following are the worth noting points about the French East India Company.
- It was founded by Jean-Baptiste Colbert in 1664.
- The French established their first factory at Surat in 1668, and in 1669, they built another factory at Masulipatam.
- They also established a factory at Chandranagar in Bengal.
- In 1701, Pondicherry was made the capital of the French settlements in India.
- Joseph Marquis Dupleix was the most ambitious Governor-General of the French East India Company.
- He was made the Governor General of all French territories in India in 1742.
- He made alliances with many local rulers and also interfered in their succession disputes.
- Dupleix’s plans for territorial expansion became a reason for conflict between French and British which led to the Carnatic wars.
Arrival of British :
The English East India Company was established on 31 December 1600 as per the Royal Charter issued by the Queen of England, Elizabeth I.
The English East India Company had sent Captain Hawkins to the court of the Mughal Emperor, Jahangir in 1608 to secure permission to establish a factory at Surat.
Initially their request was turned down by Jahangir However, in 1613, Jahangir agreed and issued a firman permitting the East India Company to establish its first factory at Surat.
English established their second factory at Masulipatnam in 1616.
In 1639, the British purchased the land in Madrasapattinam from Raja of Chandragiri and established Fort Saint George there which later became the part of Madras Presidency.
In May 1661, as per the marriage alliance between Charles II of England and Catharine of Braganza, the Portuguese king’s daughter, Bombay was given to Charles II as dowry.
In 1668, a royal charter was issued which gave Bombay to the East India Company for the rent of 10 pounds per year.
By the year 1690, the East India Company purchased three villages namely, Sutanuti, Govindpur and Kalikatta, which later grew into the city of Calcutta. The British built another fort here and named it Fort William after the English King William III.
All the factories and trading centers which the English established along the coast of India were placed under either Bombay, Madras or Calcutta Presidency.
Anglo-French rivalry and the Carnatic Wars :
Though the British and the French came to India for trading, they slowly became involved in the politics of India. During that time, the entire south India was divided into minor Rajas, Nawabs
and chieftains who fought with one another to maintain their supremacy.
Both English and French wanted to exploit this situation and wanted to establish their hegemony. This led to Anglo-French rivalry in India.
Due to this rivalry, three Carnatic wars occurred between the English and French and finally the British emerged victorious and established their hegemony in India.
Following are the worth noting points about the three carnatic wars:
First Carnatic War (1744-48) :
- Carnatic was the name given by the Europeans to the Coromandel coast and its hinterland. Both British and French East India Companies had their important bases in south India, at Madras and Pondicherry. These bases were in the territory ruled by Anwar-ur-Din, the Nawab of the Carnatic, the Mughal governor in the area.
- The First Carnatic War started as an extension of the ‘Anglo-French War’ fought in Europe which was caused by the ‘Austrian War of Succession’. When fighting broke out between the British and the French, the Nawab declared his territory to be neutral and forbade the French and British from attacking each other.
- However, defying this truce, the French seized Madras in 1746. French forces also defeated the forces of Anwar-ud-din, the Nawab of Carnatic, to whom the English appealed for help.
- This war concluded in 1748 with the treaty of ‘Aix-la-Chapelle’.
- Under the terms of this treaty, Madras was given back to the British, and the French, in turn, got their territories in North America back.
Second Carnatic War (1749-54) :
- Even after the First Carnatic War ended, a proxy war between the British and French continued in India.
- A victory over the Indian Nawab in the first Carnatic war boosted the confidence of the French represented by Dupleix. As the succession dispute in Hyderabad and Arcot broke out, Both French and British got involved in that to maintain their influence in the region.
- The French initially succeeded however it was the heroic Siege of Arcot in 1751 by Robert Clive which proved to be the turning point of the war. After this, Dupleix was recalled to France and was replaced by Godehu.
- Godehu signed a ‘Treaty of Pondicherry’ in 1755. As per the treaty, both countries agreed to not to interfere in the disputes of Indian princes. However, this treaty gave the British a strong position in Carnatic.
Third Carnatic War (1757-63) :
- The conflict between France and England reemerged 1756 in Europe and with this started the Seven Years War in Europe. As a result, the British and French started fighting in India also which culminated into the Third Carnatic War.
- The British Forces were able to capture the French Settlements at Chandranagar in 1757. The British forces under Sir Eyre Coote, defeated the French army under Count de Lally in the ‘Battle of Wandiwash’ in 1760 and besieged Pondicherry.
- When the Seven Years war ended, it concluded the third carnatic war also with the signing of Treaty of Paris in 1763.
- As per the treaty, the Chandranagar and Pondicherry were returned to France however they could only do trading activities in them.
Reasons for Failure of France and Success of British in Carnatic Wars :
The Third Carnatic War was a decisive war as it ended the French ambitions to create a colonial empire in India and the British became the supreme European power in India. Following were the main reasons for the failure of the French and Success of British in Carnatic wars :
- Private Nature of the English EIC – The British Company was a private enterprise and was less dependent and influenced by the British Government. However, the French EIC was completely dependent on the Government and needed French governments approvals for any major decisions. Also, Some directors of the East India Company were Members of Parliament who could exercise influence in Government and could swiftly get the favorable decisions for the company.
- Better Commercial and Financial Position of the British – The trade carried out by the British EIC(East India Company) was far greater than the French EIC due to which the British EIC was in a much better financial position. They could bear the cost of war however the same could not be done by the French EIC.
- Naval Supremacy of the British East India Company – The British had naval supremacy and due to that they were able to send troops whenever required quickly.
- Widespread Settlements of British – The British had their settlements in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras However only major French settlement was in Pondicherry. Thus, the British were in an advantageous position as they had more widespread presence and could arrange help and supplies quickly.
- Recall of Dupleix – Recall of Dupleix by the French Government was a big mistake as . The vacuum created after his departure could not be filled by the persons who succeeded him.
- Better leadership of the British – The British EIC was headed by Clive who was a great soldier as well as a statesman. Leadership of the French EIC was not as efficient and swift. After the recall of Dupleix, Count de Lally replaced him who lacked the foresight and statesmanship of Dupleix.
- Better cooperation and coordination in the British EIC – French lacked this
In the next Chapter, we will study about the Bengal and the Battle of Plassey and Buxar.
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